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Diet seen to affect liver cancer risk: study
  "....high intakes of milk and yoghurt, white meats, eggs and fruits was consistent across strata of HBV and HCV infections..."
NEW YORK (Reuters Life!) - Certain foods, including milk and fruit, appear to reduce the likelihood of developing liver cancer, according to Italian researchers.
Their study, Dr. Renato Talamini told Reuters Health, "indicated that diet has a relevant role in the risk of this cancer. As for other types of cancer, particularly fruits and vegetables seem to confer a protective effect."
Talamini, at the National Tumor Institute in Aviano, and colleagues studied 185 patients with liver cancer and a comparison group of 412 "controls" without cancer. The results are reported in the International Journal of Cancer.
The participants' responses to dietary questionnaires showed that as intake of various foods went up, the risk of liver cancer went down. After accounting for other factors that could affect the risk, the team found that high intakes of milk and yoghurt reduced the chances of developing liver cancer by 78 percent.
High consumption of white meat lowered the risk by 56 percent, and with high intake of fruit, it went down by 52 percent. Vegetables, too, apparently had a protective effect, but this didn't reach significance from a statistical standpoint.
The researchers saw that the findings held good for patients with hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
Talamini advised that, to ward off liver cancer, one should "adopt a correct diet, rich in fruits and vegetables." Also important, he added, "is limiting consumption of alcohol beverages and avoiding HCV infection by practicing safe sex and eliminating needle sharing."
The role of diet, except for alcohol drinking and aflatoxin contamination, in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Italy in 1999-2002, including 185 incident, histologically-confirmed cases of HCC. Controls were 412 subjects admitted to hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic diseases unrelated to diet. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional multiple logistic regression, adjusting for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection and alcohol drinking. Energy adjustment was carried out by means of the residual model. A significant inverse relation was found between intakes of milk and yoghurt (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13-0.61), white meats (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.95), eggs (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14-0.69), and fruits (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.22-1.05) and HCC risk. The favourable effect of high intakes of milk and yoghurt, white meats, eggs and fruits was consistent across strata of HBV and HCV infections. The present study supports the hypothesis of a role of diet in HCC aetiology. Dietary modifications may be indicated in subjects at high-risk for HCC.
FDA wants to boost food claims on osteoporosis
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Foods, beverages and dietary supplements containing both calcium and vitamin D may soon carry labels saying they help reduce the risk of osteoporosis, according to a U.S. government proposal made on Friday.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's proposal came in response to a petition from Coca-Cola Co., which makes Minute Maid orange juice products fortified with calcium and vitamin D.
"Osteoporosis is a significant public health problem, especially for women," Dr. Kathleen Uhl, assistant commissioner of FDA's Office of Women's Health, said.
"This new labeling should assist consumers to select foods ... that provide adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and hopefully prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis in themselves and their family members," she said.
Osteoporosis is a decrease in bone density that makes bones brittle and more prone to fracture.
The proposal would amend a 1993 regulation by allowing foodmakers to claim a reduced risk of osteoporosis with the consumption of both calcium and vitamin D. It would also let companies drop a requirement that their labels state there are limits to the benefits of taking more than 200 percent of the recommended daily intake.
Studies show that vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. The FDA recommends adults consume 1.0 gram of calcium and 400 international units of vitamin D each day for a healthy diet.
Orange juice maker Tropicana, a unit of PepsiCo Inc., said it welcomed the FDA proposal to make it easier for Americans to get more calcium and vitamin D. Several Tropicana orange juice products contain extra calcium and vitamin D to match what consumers get in a glass of milk.
The proposal came in response to a petition from Coca-Cola, which makes Minute Maid orange juice products fortified with calcium and vitamin D.
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