icon-folder.gif   Conference Reports for NATAP  
  5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention
July 19th-22nd 2009
Capetown, South Africa
Back grey_arrow_rt.gif
Bone mineral density (BMD) in a population of healthy HIV-negative young African adults enrolling in a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial in Botswana
  Reported by Jules Levin
5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment & Prevention, July 19-22 2009
Brief Summary: Study looked at bone mineral density by performing bone dexas in African HIV-negative individuals enrolling in TDF/FTC (TDF2 PrEP Study) trial. Of note, mean age of study participants was 24 (20-29). 216 individuals were enrolled. RESULTS: 57% (n=123) had low BMD at 1 anatomin site, 19% at 2 anatomic sites, 4.2% at 3 anatomic sites. 40% of men had L-spine osteopenia, 21.9% had wrist osteopenia. 41.1% in age group 20-24 had wrist osteopenia. Of note 47.8% with normal BMI (18.5-24.9) had L-spine osteopenia while 25.6% of underweight with BMI <18.5 had L-spine osteopenia.
Presented by Michael Craig Thigpen (Botswana), Lynn Paxton (United States).
E. Buliva1, C. Vite San Pedro1, R. Mutanhaurwa1, P. Kebaabetswe1, E. Jooste2, S. Johnson1, T. Sukalac1, L. Paxton3, M.C. Thigpen1,3
1BOTUSA, HIV Prevention Research Division, Gaborone, Botswana, 2Medical Imaging Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana, 3Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Epidemiology Branch, Atlanta, United States
Background: Very limited data exist on BMD in healthy, HIV-negative African populations. Baseline data on bone health are important as tenofovir-containing regimens, which can reduce BMD, may potentially be used for HIV prevention should PrEP be proven efficacious.
Methods: We performed baseline Dual Emission X-Ray Absorptiometry and calculated T-Score values on a subset of HIV-negative young adults in Gaborone, Botswana enrolling in a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of tenofovir/emtricitabine in preventing HIV infection. We used toxicity tables from the U.S. National Institutes of Health's Division of AIDS to define low BMD as either osteopenia (-1≥Total T-Score≥-2.5) or osteoporosis (Total T-score< -2.5) of the wrist, hip or lumbar spine (L-spine). We provided all participants with low BMD with calcium and vitamin D supplements.
Results: Among 102 males and 114 females in this sub-study, the mean age was 24 years (range 20-29 years); all were black Batswana. Low BMD in ≥1 anatomic site was noted in 123 (57%) participants; 19.0% and 4.2% had low BMD in two and three sites respectively. (Table)
Proportion of Participants with Osteopenia or Osteoporosis Stratified by Gender, Age, Body Mass Index, and Anatomic Site


Conclusions: Osteopenia in this group of HIV-negative young adults is very common. As tenofovir-containing regimens are used more frequently for HIV treatment and potentially prevention, further population-based studies (including assessment of nutritional status and alcohol use) are needed to determine the prevalence of low BMD in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative African populations.