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CVD death rate in US declines, but one in three still dying from cardiac causes. HIV & CVD
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Predicting and Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Infected Patients Perspective

"The risk of CVD in HIV-infected persons appears to reflect the contribution of a number of factors, including non-HIV-related (traditional) cardiovascular risk factors, chronic inflammation associated with HIV infection, and metabolic adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Traditional CVD risk factors, however, are the major determinants of risk in HIV-infected patients and this population carries a high burden of such factors. HIV infection may also be an independent risk factor for CVD, but there is not yet sufficient evidence to consider HIV infection itself a coronary heart disease risk equivalent (eg, in the same manner as diabetes) or to change calculation of risk in the HIV-infected population. In the absence of specific randomized trials in the HIV-infected population, HIV-infected persons should be treated for cardiovascular risk factors according to current national guidelines for reducing risk, including those for aspirin use and for treatment of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome", December 12, 2012 Michael O'Riordan

Dallas, TX - The American Heart Association (AHA) has released its most recent update on heart disease and stroke, estimating that the total direct and indirect costs of cardiovascular disease and stroke are more than $310 billion in the US [1]. Although the relative rate of deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease declined from 1999 to 2009, cardiovascular disease still accounts for one in every three US deaths.

Based on 2009 death-rate data, more than 2000 Americans die of cardiovascular disease every day, or approximately one death every 40 seconds. Every 25 seconds, one American will have a coronary event, and every minute one American will die from one. Coronary heart disease accounted for one in six deaths in the US in 2009, while stroke accounted for one in every 19 deaths. Every 40 seconds, somebody in the US has a stroke.

The AHA statistical update, with lead author of the writing committee Dr Alan Go (Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, Oakland), is published online December 12, 2012 in Circulation.

Declining death rates, but risk factors still climbing

The 2009 overall rate of death attributable to cardiovascular disease was 236.1 deaths per 100 000 individuals. The rate of death was 281.4, 387.0, 190.4, and 267.9 per 100 000 white males, black males, white females, and black females, respectively. From 1999 to 2009, the relative rate of death attributable to cardiovascular disease declined by 32.7%, but cardiovascular disease still accounted for one-third of deaths in the US.

Regarding cardiovascular disease risk factors, the AHA estimates that 31.9 million adults have serum total-cholesterol levels >240 mg/dL and 33.0% of US adults have hypertension, or approximately 78 million adults. African American adults have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world, notes the AHA. In 2010, 19.7 million Americans had physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus, or 8.3% of the population, while another 38.2% had prediabetes with abnormal fasting-glucose levels.

For smoking status, approximately one in five adult Americans continues to smoke, while 18.1% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported current cigarette use.

The percentage of young persons (<18 years old) who engage in no regular physical activity is high, and this percentage increases with age. In 2011, 17.7% of girls and 10.0% of boys reported not participating in 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity even once during the previous seven-day period. One in three adults reported engaging in no aerobic leisure-time physical activity.

More than 150 million adults in the US were considered overweight or obese, or two out every three adults. More than one-third of US adults are obese, while 31.8% of children and adolescents aged two to 19 are overweight or obese, or 23.9 million kids. More than 12 million US children and adolescents are considered obese.

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