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Trends in U.S. HIV Diagnoses, 2005-2014: Gay, Bisexual, and other Men who have Sex with Men- Latinos, African-American Men & Women
 
 
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"Despite these recent gains, African American women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for six in 10 diagnoses among women in 2014. .......African Americans, more than any other racial or ethnic population, continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. While African Americans represent approximately 13 percent of the total U.S. population, they accounted for almost half (44 percent) of all HIV diagnoses in 2014. Similarly, Latino men and women accounted for nearly a quarter (23 percent) of all new HIV diagnoses, while only representing 17 percent of the population.
 
Over the full decade, African Americans, Latinos, and whites all saw decreases in diagnoses. But declines have stalled over the most recent five-year period for Latinos........
 
Southern states bear the greatest burden of HIV infection, illness, and death. Southern states account for an estimated 44 percent of all people living with an HIV diagnosis, despite making up roughly one-third (37 percent) of the national population...... in some Southern states have death rates that are three times higher than people living with HIV in some other states......people living with HIV in the South are less likely to be aware of their infection than those living in other U.S. regions.......While only five states reached the national 2015 goal of 90 percent awareness, almost 70 percent of the worst performing states were in the South."
 

 


 
More than three decades after the first cases of AIDS were diagnosed in the United States, HIV continues to pose a substantial threat to the health and well-being of Americans. According to the most recent CDC data, roughly 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV, and about 40,000 infections are diagnosed each year.
 
However, trends in HIV diagnoses over the past decade show promising signs of progress-though progress has been uneven and certain groups, particularly gay and bisexual men and African Americans, continue to be the most affected. Recent data also show uneven progress across states, with noteworthy gaps in prevention and care-especially in the South.
 
A CDC analysis released in December 2015 examines HIV diagnoses overall and in key populations from 2005-2014 and 2010-2014, providing both a decade-long perspective and a view of more recent trends. A second analysis released at the same time exposes regional disparities.
 
A Decade of Overall Declines
 
Over the full decade examined (2005-2014), the annual number of HIV diagnoses in the United States declined by 19 percent. This decrease was most marked by steep declines among heterosexuals (35 percent) and people who inject drugs (PWID) (63 percent).
 
Among women, diagnoses declined 40 percent, from 12,499 diagnoses in 2005 to 7,533 in 2014. African American women have achieved the largest decreases, with a 42 percent decline since 2005 and a 25 percent decline in the most recent five-year period alone. Diagnoses among Latino and white women have also declined steadily over the decade (35 percent and 30 percent, respectively). Despite these recent gains, African American women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for six in 10 diagnoses among women in 2014.
 
Among men, diagnoses decreased by 11 percent over the 10-year period, from 36,296 to 32,185, a smaller decline due in large part to ongoing challenges in reducing HIV among gay and bisexual men.
 

 


 
Mixed Picture among Gay, Bisexual, and other Men who have Sex with Men
 
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be the group most heavily affected by HIV in the United States. MSM represent approximately two percent of the U.S. population, but they accounted for nearly 67 percent of all persons with HIV diagnosed in 2014.
 
From 2005-2014, diagnoses among MSM overall increased by roughly six percent (25,155 to 26,612), driven by increases among black and Latino MSM. Trends over the decade varied considerably by race and ethnicity:
 
- Among Latino MSM, diagnoses increased by 24 percent (5,492 to 6,829).
 
- Among black MSM, diagnoses increased 22 percent (8,235 to 10,080).
 
- Among white MSM, diagnoses declined 18 percent (9,966 to 8,207).
 
- While the number of diagnoses was small among Asian American and American Indian/Alaska Native MSM, there were concerning increases over the decade. Asian American MSM experienced a 101 percent increase (from 357 to 717), and diagnoses among American Indian/Alaska Native MSM increased 63 percent (from 81 to 132).
 
- The steepest increases occurred among young black and Latino MSM aged 13-24, who both saw increases of about 87 percent over the decade (from 2,094 to 3,923 and from 866 to 1,617, respectively). Diagnoses among young white MSM aged 13-24 increased 56 percent (from 756 to 1,179). The number of diagnoses is too small to examine trends for other racial/ethnic groups by age.
 

 


 
Recent Years Reveal First Signs of Slowing Diagnoses Among Black Gay and Bisexual Men
 
The more recent five-year data set (2010-2014) provides more encouraging signs, with diagnoses stabilizing among black MSM overall and young black MSM after years of steep increases. During this period:
 
- Diagnoses continued to decline among white MSM (a six percent decline from 8,766 to 8,207).
 
- Diagnoses stabilized among MSM overall (a less than one percent increase from 26,386 to 26,612) and black MSM (a less than one percent increase from 10,013 to 10,080).
 
- Diagnoses increased among Latino MSM (a 13 percent increase from 6,060 to 6,829).
 
- Among 13- t o 24-year-old MSM, diagnoses have stabilized among young black men (a two percent decline from 3,994 to 3,923) and young white men (a less than one percent decline from 1,186 to 1,179). While increases have continued among young Latino men, increases appear to be slowing in recent years (16 percent increase from 1,393 to 1,617).
 

 


 
Narrowing Gaps by Race and Ethnicity
 

 
Despite recent progress, African Americans, more than any other racial or ethnic population, continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. While African Americans represent approximately 13 percent of the total U.S. population, they accounted for almost half (44 percent) of all HIV diagnoses in 2014. Similarly, Latino men and women accounted for nearly a quarter (23 percent) of all new HIV diagnoses, while only representing 17 percent of the population.
 
Over the full decade, African Americans, Latinos, and whites all saw decreases in diagnoses. But declines have stalled over the most recent five-year period for Latinos.
 
While Asian Americans and those of American Indian/Alaska Native descent are not disproportionately affected by HIV, sharp increases in diagnoses among these populations (69 percent and 19 percent, respectively) may also indicate a cause for concern.
 
Beyond Diagnoses: Regional Disparities in the Epidemic
 
Across the nation, Southern states bear the greatest burden of HIV infection, illness, and death. Southern states account for an estimated 44 percent of all people living with an HIV diagnosis, despite making up roughly one-third (37 percent) of the national population.
 
People living with HIV in some Southern states have death rates that are three times higher than people living with HIV in some other states. One goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States is for all states to reduce the death rate among persons living with a diagnosed HIV infection to 21.7 per 1,000 individuals by 2015. Of the 10 states across the U.S. that had not met the goal by 2012, seven were in the South.
 
In addition, people living with HIV in the South are less likely to be aware of their infection than those living in other U.S. regions. Nationally, 87 percent of Americans living with HIV knew their HIV status in 2012-but this percentage varied substantially across states. While only five states reached the national 2015 goal of 90 percent awareness, almost 70 percent of the worst performing states were in the South.
 

 


 
Accelerating Progress
 
The National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States, launched in 2010, helped create a more coordinated national response to the HIV epidemic and provided a framework for prioritizing and delivering HIV prevention and care services to populations most at risk.
 
The relative stability in recent years of HIV diagnoses among gay and bisexual men, as well as continued declines among people who inject drugs and heterosexuals-particularly African American women-offer hope for future gains as investments in coordinated, high-impact approaches continue.
 
However, the uneven pace of progress across regions and among high-risk groups signals an urgent need to accelerate access to testing, treatment, and prevention strategies for all individuals at risk, to ensure that every American has the knowledge and tools needed to protect themselves and their partners.

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