icon-    folder.gif   Conference Reports for NATAP  
  IAS 2013: 7th IAS Conference on HIV
Pathogenesis Treatment and Prevention
June 30 - July 3 2013
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Persistent immune activation despite suppressive HAART is associated with higher risk for viral blips in HIV-1 infected individuals
  Reported by Jules Levin
IAS 2013 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Alexander Zoufaly1*, Jan G Kiepe1*, Sandra Hertling1, Anja Hufner1, Olaf Degen1, Torsten Feldt2 Stefan Schmiedel1, Michael Kurowski3, Jan van Lunzen1 1) Department of Medicine 1/Infectious Diseases Unit, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany
2) Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany
3) HIV Laboratory Therapia, Auguste-Viktoria Clinic, Berlin, Germany
from Jules: The HLA-DR/CD3 is used to identify and determine the percentage of activated human T lymphocytes and hematapoietic progenitor cells in erythrocyte-lysed whole blood, based on cell-surface antigenexpression. CD3 identifies T lymphocytes. HLA-DR is a class II MHC antigen that is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, activated T lymphocytes, activated NK lymphocytes and on human hematopoietic progenitor cells. The CD3+ HLA-DR+ phenotype identifies activated T lymphocytes. Activated T lymphocytes (HLA-DR+/CD3+) may increase in states of immune activation, which may be caused by infection or impending transplant rejection...... HLA-DR is also involved in several autoimmune conditions, disease susceptibility and disease resistance. It is also closely linked to HLA-DQ and this linkage often makes it difficult to resolve the more causative factor in disease. HLA-DR molecules are upregulated in response to signalling. In the instance of an infection, the peptide (such as the staphylococcal enterotoxin I peptide) is bound into a DR molecule and presented to a few of a great many T-cell receptors found on T-helper cells. These cells then bind to antigens on the surface of B-cells stimulating B-cell proliferation.