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HCV & Women - several key reports
  High Rates of Viral Infections & HCV and For Risk Factors Among HIV-Infected and High-Risk HIV-Uninfected Women......women with HIV tend to be in certain high risk groups for other viral infections [http://www.natap.org/2003/april/042103_7.htm]......."..HCV seroprevalence was 89.7% among injection drug users, compared with 10.5% among noninjection drug users.. Women in HERS who did not inject drugs may have acquired HCV sexually.. The 10.5% HCV seroprevalence among noninjection drug users is much higher than that in the general population, which might be explained by higher numbers of sex partners and a higher prevalence of HCV infection in sex partners among women included in HERS.....in this study - Two-thirds (65.8%) reported having smoked crack cocaine. Approximately one-fourth of the women (28.1%) reported having had >20 sex partners in their lifetimes, and 41.1% reported having had commercial sex. One-third (35.7%) of the women began having sex before they were 15 years old. Nearly all of the women (87.9%) reported having smoked cigarettes.......60% of the women were HCV+; 59% were HBV+; 94% were CMV+; 63% were HPV+; 74% were HSV-1 positive and 67% were HSV-2 positive. Both blacks and whites had high rates of these diseases. Regarding HCV, 55% of the women in New York were HCV+, 45% of the women in Detroit were HCV+, 68% of the women in Baltimore were HCV+, and 56% of the women in Providence, RI were HCV+. Similar rates of HBV positivity were seen.
HCV Sex Transmission, Early Reports from 1995/2002 Among Men, Women at Johns Hopkins STD Clinics & other Studies, HIV+ MSM from the Netherlands
"Females with anti-HCV-positive sex partners were 3.7 times more likely to have anti-HCV than females with anti-HCV-negative sex partners"
"This investigation provides some evidence that sexual transmission of HCV occurs among patients attending the Baltimore STD clinics.......Anti-HCV was more frequent in male and female patients who had greater numbers of sex partners (even after adjusting for age and other associated factors), and anti-HCV was associated with other sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIY and Trichomonas infections......Ninety-five percent of patients in our investigation were African-American.......even after excluding injection drug users, the rate of anti-HCV was 13.3% among persons attending the Johns Hopkins Emergency Department and 9.6% among patients visiting STD clinics......In this investigation, anti-HCV was found in 18% of males with past homosexual exposure; these males were 3.6 times more likely to have anti-HCV than male STD patients with only heterosexual partners........Studies that have found little or no transmission of HCV to sex partners differ from ours in that they evaluated longterm, monogamous sex relationships [15-19]"

Female participants. Females comprised 47% of the study population. As with males. anti-HCY in females was associated with increasing age (P < .001). greater numbers of lifetime heterosexual partners (P < .001). cigarette smoking (P = .003). and more than weekly use of alcohol (P < .001; table 2). Associations of anti-HCY with a history of pregnancy (P = .03) and with laboratory evidence of vaginal trichomonas infection (P <. 001) were also noted. Factors not significantly associated with anti-HCV in males or females included laboratory and clinical evidence of genital herpes. Chlamydia. and gonococcal infections. age of first intercourse. and history of crack cocaine use. Histories of exchanging sex for money or drugs were also associated with anti-HCV among females before we removed patients with a history of injection drug use from the analysis."
New NHANES: The Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 through 2010......http://www.natap.org/2013/HCV/011314_12.htm
"Injection drug use remains the strongest risk factor for HCV infection.[47-49] .......The prevalence was noted to be highest among male non-Hispanic Blacks (2.2%) compared to Non-Hispanic whites (1.3%) [2.9% among Black men, 1.7% among Black women]
HCV infection in opioid dependent pregnant women......
"Vertical transmission is the leading cause of childhood HCV"
"Vertical transmission of HCV occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies"
"Approximately 30% of OD women are newly diagnosed with HCV in pregnancy"
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